Interventional - Drug
To evaluate whether a cholesterol lowering drug, rosuvastatin, and a combination blood pressure lowering pill, candesartan/ hydrochlorothiazide, used alone or together can reduce the risk of heart attack, stroke and their sequelae in people without known heart disease at average risk. The largest ongoing trial evaluating the polypill concept in primary prevention, expected to have a significant impact on primary prevention strategies globally.
Co-Primary endpoints were: 1) The composite of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction and non-fatal stroke. 2) The composite of cardiovascular death, resuscitated cardiac arrest, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, heart failure and arterial revascularizations.
Secondary endpoints were: total mortality and the components of the co-primary endpoints. Additional endpoints include progression of renal disease, new diagnosis of diabetes, cognitive function and erectile dysfunction in men. All primary and secondary endpoints are adjudicated.
Interventional - Drug
Randomized, double-blind, placebo control, factorial assignment
Executive Director; Senior Scientist
Salim Yusuf is an internationally renowned cardiologist and epidemiologist, whose work over 40 years has substantially influenced prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Born in India, medically qualified at St. John’s Medical College, Bangalore in 1976, he received a Rhodes Scholarship and obtained a DPhil from Oxford, during which he (along with Richard Peto, Rory Collins and Peter Sleight) initiated the concepts of large, simple trials, and meta-analysis. He proposed the concept of combination drug treatment for prevention of CVD to achieve large reductions in CVD with a single pill (now called the polypill concept), but more importantly has been evaluating the concept through large randomized trials.
He leads several global studies involving more than 60 countries in every inhabited continent of the world aimed at enhancing knowledge about the biological, behavioural and societal causes, consequences, and approaches to the control of heart diseases, and strokes through large multi-country programs such as INTERHEART, INTERSTROKE, and PURE.
He holds a Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario Research Chair and has received (among others) the Lifetime Research Achievement award of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society; the Paul Wood Silver Medal of the British Cardiac Society; the European Society of Cardiology gold medal, the clinical Research Prize of the American Heart Association and the International Award and the Braunwald Lecture of the American College of Cardiology. He has been inducted into the Royal Society of Canada and the Canadian Medical Hall of Fame; been appointed as an Officer of the Order of Canada, and received the Canada Gairdner Wightman Award in 2014. He has received four honorary doctorates, and is among the top 20 most cited health researchers in history.
Salim Yusuf has published more than 1,000 articles in refereed journals, rising to the second most cited researcher in the world for 2011. He has mentored more than 120 scientists, several of whom are in leadership positions across the globe. He has been President of the World Heart Federation (2015-2016), where he initiated several programs (the Emerging Leaders program, road maps for CVD control and a course for training primary care practitioners in CVD prevention) aimed at halving the CVD burden globally within a generation. The World Heart Federation has recognized his contributions by naming the program the Salim Yusuf Emerging Leaders Programme.
He is a Distinguished University Professor of Medicine, and Executive Director of the Population Health Research Institute, McMaster University and Chief Scientist, Hamilton Health Sciences.
Eva Lonn is a Principal Investigator for the Atherosclerosis Imaging and Cardiovascular Prevention programs at PHRI, and a Professor of Medicine in the Division of Cardiology at McMaster University.
She has led several large international trials and was a member of the International Steering Committee of additional landmark cardiovascular prevention trials. She directed the Vascular Research Ultrasound Laboratory at PHRI for more than 20 years. She served for many years on the Canadian Cardiovascular Society Council and Executive Committee. She has received research grants from the Medical Research Council of Canada, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada. She published over 220 peer reviewed articles, and 8 book chapters.
After obtaining her medical degree from the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, Eva Lonn completed clinical training in Internal Medicine, Cardiology and Advanced Imaging at the University of Toronto and research fellowships at the University of Toronto and at McMaster University, where she obtained also a Master of Science degree in Health Research Methodology.
Jackie Bosch started working with Salim Yusuf in 1993, before PHRI was formally created, as she was completing her Masters in Clinical Epidemiology, with the intent to learn how to do clinical trials so she could run trials in post-stroke rehabilitation. Most recently, she has been a co-investigator on large trials in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease and diabetes, as well as understanding the causes of functional decline as well as developing simple, internationally applicable interventions to improve post-stroke disability.
She is an Associate Professor, School of Rehabilitation Science, McMaster University, and has received awards such as the President’s Award for Outstanding Service (McMaster) and the PHRI Award for Outstanding Contributions to Global Collaborations. She has more than 65 peer-reviewed publications.
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