Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation-3
To evaluate whether a cholesterol lowering drug, rosuvastatin, and a combination blood pressure lowering pill, candesartan/ hydrochlorothiazide, used alone or together can reduce the risk of heart attack, stroke and their sequelae in people without known heart disease at average risk. The largest ongoing trial evaluating the polypill concept in primary prevention, expected to have a significant impact on primary prevention strategies globally.
Randomized, double-blind, placebo control, factorial assignment, safety/efficacy study.
Co-Primary endpoints: 1) The composite of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction and non-fatal stroke. 2) The composite of cardiovascular death, resuscitated cardiac arrest, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, heart failure and arterial revascularizations. Secondary endpoints are: total mortality and the components of the co-primary endpoints. Additional endpoints include progression of renal disease, new diagnosis of diabetes, cognitive function and erectile dysfunction in men. All primary and secondary endpoints are adjudicated.
Salim Yusuf, Eva Lonn
E Lonn, J Bosch, P López‑Jaramillo, J Zhu, L Liu, P Pais, R Diaz, D Xavier, K Sliwa, A Dans, A Avezum, LS Piegas, K Keltai, M Keltai, I Chazova, RJG Peters, C Held, K Yusoff, BS Lewis, P Jansky, A Parkhomenko, K Khunti, WD Toff, CM Reid, J Varigos, LA Leiter, DI Molina, R McKelvie, J Pogue, J Wilkinson, H Jung, G Dagenais, S Yusuf, D Phil for the HOPE-3 Investigators, Blood-Pressure Lowering in Intermediate-Risk Persons without Cardiovascular Disease, N Engl J Med, 2016; 374:2009-20.
S Yusuf, J Bosch, G Dagenais, J. Zhu, D Xavier, L Liu, P Pais, P López‑Jaramillo, LA Leiter, A Dans, A Avezum, LS Piegas, A Parkhomenko, K Keltai, M Keltai, K Sliwa, RJG Peters, C Held, I Chazova, K Yusoff, BS Lewis, P Jansky, K Khunti, WD Toff, CM Reid, J Varigos, G Sanchez-Vallejo, R McKelvie, J Pogue, H Jung, P Gao, R Diaz, E Lonn for the HOPE-3 Investigators, Cholesterol Lowering in Intermediate-Risk Persons without Cardiovascular Disease, N Engl J Med, 2016; 374:2021-31.
S Yusuf, D Phil, E Lonn, P Pais, J Bosch, P López‑Jaramillo, J Zhu, D Xavier, A Avezum, LA Leiter, LS Piegas, A Parkhomenko, M Keltai, K Keltai, K Sliwa, I Chazova, RJG Peters, C Held, K Yusoff, BS Lewis, P Janksy, K Khunti, WD Toff, CM Reid, J Varigos, JL Accini, R McKelvie, J Pogue, H Jung, L Liu, R Diaz, A Dans, G Dagenais, for the HOPE-3 investigators. Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Lowering in Persons without Cardiovascular Disease. N Engl J Med, 2016; 374:2032-43.