Landmark Research Studies

The objective of the TIPS-3 study was to evaluate a polypill (with and without aspirin) and vitamin D supplementation – compared to their respective placebos – in a primary prevention setting to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes.

It was hypothesized that in individuals without clinical cardiovascular disease, but at increased risk of CVD, a 50 to 60 percent reduction in CVD risk could be achieved using fixed dose combination (FDC) therapy, usually comprised of multiple blood-pressure agents and a statin (with or without aspirin) in a single polypill.

Before TIPS-3, the impact of a polypill in preventing clinical cardiovascular events had not been evaluated in a large randomized controlled trial.

The results of the TIP-3 study are key to determining the appropriateness of FDC therapy as a strategy in the global prevention of CVD.

Prem Pais, of St. John’s Medical College and Research Institute in Bangalore, India, is co-Principal Investigator of TIPS-3, with Salim Yusuf. They co-presented on the study at AHA 2020.

AHA 2020 Presentation - TIPS-3: Download PDF ESC 2021 Revised Presentation - FDC Meta-analysis: Download PDF
Study Type

Interventional - Drug

Study Design

Randomized, double-blind, 2x2x2 factorial, placebo controlled

NO. of Countries


NO. of Sites


NO. of Participants


Study Period

2012 - 2020



VIDEO: Salim Yusuf on TIPS-3 study findings, which were released Nov. 13 at AHA 2020 release.

Wellcome Trust

Cadila Pharmaceuticals

Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)

Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada

Hamilton Health Sciences Research Institute

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