The objective of the RAAFT study was to determine whether catheter-based pulmonary vein isolation is superior to antiarrhythmic drugs as first line therapy in patients with symptomatic paroxysmal recurrent atrial fibrillation (AF) not previously treated with therapeutic doses of antiarrhythmic drugs.

Primary endpoints:

Time to first recurrence of symptomatic AF.

Ablation Arm:

Severe (>70%) PV stenosis. Thromboembolic event with residual sequelae, TIA, pericarditis, MI, diaphragmatic paralysis, procedural complication requiring intervention & death.

Antiarrythmic drug therapy Arm: Torsade de Pointes, syncope, bradycardia requiring pacemaker, other pro-arrhythmic events, any other SAEs leading to drug discontinuation. Bleeding complications assoc w/OAC therapy.

Secondary endpoints:

1. Total of symptomatic and asymptomatic AF episodes documented by TTM.

2. Quality of life at one-year follow-up.

Primary and secondary events are adjudicated.

Study Type

Interventional - Drug

Study Design

Randomized, open label, active control, parallel group design, safety/efficacy.

NO. of Countries


NO. of Sites


NO. of Participants


Study Period




Johnson & Johnson (grant-in-aid)

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