The objective of the INVICTUS study was to determine if:

1. In patients with rheumatic valvular heart disease (RVHD) and who are in atrial fibrillation or flutter (AF/flutter) and have other stroke risk factors, rivaroxaban is non-inferior to vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) for prevention of stroke or systemic embolism.

2. In patients with RVHD, either with AF/flutter but unsuitable for VKA therapy, or with sinus rhythm but with high risk, rivaroxaban is superior to aspirin for prevention of stroke or systemic embolism.

Primary endpoints:

Stroke and systemic embolism.

This research program was comprised of running concurrently two randomized, parallel group, open-label clinical trials, and a multi-center registry for RVHD.

Professor G. Karthikeyan, India

G. Karthikeyan

The national leader in India for INVICTUS, G. Karthikeyan, presented results at ESC 2022.

INVICTUS - ESC 2022 (download PDF)
Study Type

Interventional - Drug

Study Design

Open-label RCT and registry

NO. of Countries


NO. of Sites


NO. of Participants


Study Period

2016 - 2022




VIDEO: G. Karthikeyan on INVICTUS at ESC 2022

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