INTERHEART a global study of risk factors for acute myocardial infarction
The INTERHEART study found that nine easily measurable and modifiable risk factors could explain over 90 per cent of the risk of a heart attack globally and in all regions and major ethnic groups of the world. These studies emphasized that avoidance of tobacco, daily consumption of fruits and vegetables and regular exercise could potentially avoid two-thirds of heart disease. The results also indicated that tobacco (smoking even one cigarette per day increases the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) by five per cent) and abnormal lipids were the two most important risk factors globally, and that the markers of abdominal obesity and hip size (waist-to-hip-ratio) are far more predictive than body mass index (BMI) in predicting MI. Furthermore, stress and psychosocial factors were found to be important risk factors for MI.
Cardiovascular risk factors.
Number of Patients
Number of Sites
Number of Countries
- INTERHEART, Am Heart Journal, 2001; 141:711-721: Stephanie Ôunpuu, PhD, Abdissa Negassa, PhD, and Salim Yusuf, DPhil, FRCPC, for the INTER-HEART Investigators
- INTERHEART Risk Factors, Lancet, 2004 Sep 11-17;364(9438):937-52: Salim Yusuf, Steven Hawken, Stephanie Ôunpuu, Tony Dans, Alvaro Avezum, Fernando Lanas, Matthew McQueen, Andrzej Budaj, Prem Pais, John Varigos, Liu Lisheng, on behalf of the INTERHEART Study Investigators
- INTERHEART Psychosocial, Lancet, 2004 Sep 11-17;364(9438):953-62.: Annika Rosengren, Steven Hawken, Stephanie Ôunpuu, Karen Sliwa, Mohammad Zubaid, Wael A Almahmeed, Kathleen Ngu Blackett, Chitr Sitthi-amorn, Hiroshi Sato, Salim Yusuf, for the INTERHEART investigators*
- INTERHEART Obesity, Lancet, 2005; 366:1640-1649 : Salim Yusuf, Steven Hawken, Stephanie Ôunpuu, Leonelo Bautista, Maria Grazia Franzosi, Patrick Commerford, Chim C Lang, Zvonko Rumboldt, Churchill L Onen, Liu Lisheng, Supachai Tanomsup, Paul Wangai Jr, Fahad Razak, Arya M Sharma, Sonia S Anand, on behalf of the INTERHEART Study Investigators*