Population Health Research Institute
Cardiovascular Prevention

Cardiovascular Prevention
Understanding the causes and evaluating new methods of preventing cardiovascular disease

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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the world's largest cause of death. Of the 55 million deaths that occur in the world, approximately 35 per cent are due to cardiovascular diseases. The increase in cardiovascular disease is a relatively recent phenomenon. This marked increase in CVD initially occurred in Western countries, but it is now increasingly being seen in low and middle-income countries, such that over 80 per cent of cardiovascular disease burden is seen in these latter countries. In the future, as cardiovascular disease rates decline in the high-income countries, the rates of these conditions will continue to increase in low and middle-income countries.


The Cardiovascular Prevention Program at the Population Health Research Institute seeks to understand the causes of heart disease and strokes globally. This team of experienced researchers also evaluates novel approaches to preventing vascular disease in those who already have established disease or those who are at high risk or cardiac disease.



Main Publications

The HOPE Investigators.  Vitamin E supplementation and cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med 2000;342:154-160.

The HOPE Investigators.  Effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med 2000;342:145-153.

The HOPE Investigators.  Effects of ramipril on cardiovascular and microvascular outcomes in people with diabetes mellitus: results of the HOPE study and MICRO-HOPE study.  Lancet 2000;355:253-259.

Lonn E, Yusuf S. Arnold MJ, Sheridan P, Pogue J, Micks M, McQueen MJ, Probstfield J, Fodor G, Held C, Genest J Jr; Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) 2 Investigators Homocysteine lowering with folic acid & B vitamins in vascular disease. N Engl J Med 2006;354:1567-77.        

DREAM Trial Investigators, Bosch J, Yusuf S, Gerstein HC, Pogue J, Sheridan P, Dagenais G, Diaz R, Avezum A, Lanas F, Probstfield J, Fodor G, Holman RR. Effect of ramipril on the incidence of diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2006 Oct 12; 355 (15) 1551-62.

DREAM (Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication) Trial Investigators, Gerstein HC, Yusuf S, Bosch J, Pogue J, Sheridan P, Dinccag N, Hanefeld M, Hoogwerf B, Laakso M, Mohan V, Shaw J, Zinman B, Holman RR. Effect of rosiglitazone on the frequency of diabetes in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2006 Sep 23;368(9541):1096-105. 

Warfarin Antiplatelet Vascular Evaluation Trial Investigators, Anand S, Yusuf S, Xie C, Pogue J, Eikelboom J, Budaj A, Sussex B, Liu L, Guzman R, Cina C, Crowell R, Keltai M, Gosselin G. Oral anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy and peripheral arterial disease. N Engl J Med. 2007 Jul 19;357(3):217-27.
The ONTARGET Investigators.  Telmisartan, ramipril or both in patients at high risk for vascular events.  N Eng J Med 2008;358:1547-59.
Telmisartan Randomised AssessmeNt Study in ACE iNtolerant subjects with cardiovascular Disease (TRANSCEND) Investigators. Effects of the angiotensin-receptor blocker telmisartan on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients intolerant to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2008;372:1174-83.
Indian Polycap Study (TIPS), Yusuf S, Pais P, Afzal R, Xavier D, Teo K, Eikelboom J, Sigamani A, Mohan V, Gupta R, Thomas N. Effects of a polypill (Polycap) on risk factors in middle-aged individuals without cardiovascular disease (TIPS): a phase II, double-blind, randomized trial. Lancet. 2009;373:1341-51. 


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